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இலங்கையின் எழுபத்தியொராவது சுதந்திர தின நிகழ்வானது மன்னார் மாவட்ட செயலர் சி.ஏ.மோகன்றாஸ் அவர்களின் தலமையில் இன்று(4)காலை யில் நடைபெற்றது  

அனர்த்த நிவாரண சேவைகள் நிலையத்தினால் மன்னார் மாவட்டத்துக்கென மூன்று தண்ணீர் பௌசர்கள் வழங்கிவைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தது. அவற்றை மன்னார் மாவட்ட செயலாளர் சி. எஸ் மோகன்றாஸ் அவர்கள் மடு நானாட்டான் மற்றும் முசலி பிரதேச செயலாளர்களின் ஊடாக வழங்கிவைத்தார்.      

Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Analysis

Mannar district has been continuously affected by floods, drought, and health hazards. Coastal areas of the district and the island are facing a threat of tsunami. Being continuously affected by sudden floods, drought and health hazards.

Mannar district had not experienced flooding in the recent past; however in December 2010 and early 2011 the district experienced flood situation resulting in displacement of war affected returnees and other ordinary communities. These floods affected Manthai West, Madhu, Mussali, Mannar Town and Nanattan DS divisions. The flood experienced in Mannar district was not caused due to rainfall, but resulted due to the overflowing of tanks in Anuradhapura, Vavuniya, Mullaitivu and Kilinochchi districts.

Main disasters affecting the District

Table 1.1 - History of Disasters and Probability of Disaster Episodes in the District

(Remarks may indicate the duration, severity, intensity of rain causing the hazard, magnitude of the earthquake causing the tsunami etc.

 

Hazard Type

Year & month of Occurrence

Affected Divisions

frequency

Impact on population

Impacts on infrastructure, assets, environment

Deaths

Displaced

Members

Affected

Members

Flood

2010 Dec

05

Once year

01

 8,250

26,347

Damaged

2011 Nov

05

Once year

01

26,876

45,650

Damaged

2012 Dec

05

Once year

Nil

10,281

26,315

Damaged

106

 

2014 Dec

05

Once year

Nil

6381

6381

Damaged

 

2015 Nov

03

Once year

Nil

4040

16023

Damaged

Cyclone

2012 Nov-Dec

02

Once year

Nil

41

41

House Damaged

Tsunami

2004 Dec

00

Once year

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Drought

2012June

05

Once year

Nil

Nil

14,270

 

2013 June

05

Once year

Nil

Nil

38,583

2014  June

05

Once year

Nil

Nil

76870

Epidemic

2009

03

Two time 

Nil

Nil

                        150

Cultivation and House Damaged

 

 

2010

02

Two time

Nil

Nil

98

2011

03

Two time

Nil

Nil

224

2012

02

Two time

Nil

Nil

167

2013

02

Two time

Nil

Nil

58

Table 1.2 Main hazards per division

Each DS division in Mannar district is prone to different types of hazards in different time periods

The table below gives an analysis of trends and types of hazards and their trends

 

Division

Type of Hazard

Possible areas to be affected

Best case scenario

Worst case scenario

Mannar Town

Tsunami, Cyclone, Flood, Dengue & Drought

Many coastal areas in Mannar Town, Nanattan, Mussali and Manthai West DS divisions are prone to tsunami.

All division in the district are prone to floods.

As there are no proper drainage/sewage system, during and after rainy season Mannar town division is prone to Dengue and water borne diseases.

Mussali, Manthai West, Madhu and Nanattan DS division are very vulnerable to drought from May – August.

Rain fall in Mannar district contribute very less for the floods.

Disease outbreak could be managed with the available resources in the district.

Major tanks in the district have been renovated and the tank bunds are strengthened.

The floods caused by water from

Overflowing tanks in the surrounding districts such as Anuradhapura, Vavuniya, Killinochchi and Mullaitivu.

Floods in main access route to the districts hinder transports of relief and emergency evacuations.

Many coastal areas are prone to tsunami; especially Mannar island is very vulnerable to tsunami.

Nanattan

Tsunami, Wild Animal Attack, Flood, & Drought

Mussali

Tsunami, Flood, Cyclone, Wild Animal Attack, & Drought

Manthai West

Tsunami, Wild Animal Attack, Flood & Drought

Madhu

Flood, Cyclone, Wild Animal Attack & Drought

 

 

 

1.3.2 Hazards and Vulnerability Assessment

  Table: Hazardous Months

 

Hazard

Probable Time of Occurrence

Potential Impact

Last Reported Year

Floods

Seasonal monsoon  between Oct - Jan

Though all DS divisions in the district are prone to floods, probability of floods depend on the highest rainfall in other districts around Mannar District and also the opening of sluice gate /overflowing of water from tanks in other districts.

The flood will result in displacement of people living close to major tanks in Mannar. Major flood in the mainland of Mannar can also cut the access route to Mannar.

Feb 2011, total 15,301 people (4,193 families) affected by floods

Drought

July – Sep

Mannar is one of the districts that receive low rate of rainfall in the country.

Many people in mainland of Mannar District are involved in cultivation activities for their livelihood. Famers depend on rain water for Maha season and involve in tank-irrigated cultivation in Yala season.

Total cultivable land in Mannar district is 37,160 ha and most of these areas will get affected due to drought. Only people close to major tanks can do cultivation, but that sometimes becomes difficult depending on the rainfall of the year.

Drought creates demand drinking water supply in the coastal areas. 

 

Outbreak of Disease/ Epidemics

April - August

Outbreak of dengue and other communicable disease are mostly limited to the urban and semi-urban areas in the district. However, this can be controlled by proper sewage system, popper disposal of garbage and increasing awareness.

Due to high density of population in urban areas in Mannar district, there are possibilities of quick spread of communicable diseases. Spread of diseases may be accelerated due to lack of proper sewage/drainage facilities in urban areas. Filling of water stagnation areas and settlement of people in floods prone area in Mannar can also contribute to the spread of diseases.  

Past history of hazards indicates that dengue and other communicable diseases can be controlled by proper action by government departments which do not require much external support

Cyclone

Jan - December

Mannar would be affected by cyclone based on the depression in Indian ocean. The coastal areas will be affected by Cyclone and recent Cyclone Makasenan also affected Mannar. Fishing is the main income generation activity in the coastal areas. Heavy Cyclone can cause destruction to the life and livelihood and infrastructure to the population. Especially, Mannar Island is very vulnerable as its sounded by sea.

 

Tsunami

 

Tsunami will create much greater destruction to the district as almost every DS division except Madhu has a long costal belt. Fishing is the main income generation activity in the coastal areas. Tsunami can cause mass destruction to the life and livelihood and infrastructure to the population. Especially, Mannar Island is very vulnerable for Tsunami.

 

 

 

 

Table: Seasonality of Hazardson Mannar District     

Hazards

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

 

NEM

FIM

SWM

SIM

NEM

Floods

X

X

               

X

X

Cyclone

         

X

       

X

X

Epidemic

 

X

X

   

X

X

X

   

X

X

Drought

       

X

X

X

X

X

X

   

Lightining

     

X

X

X

     

X

X

X

Tsunami

                       

HE Conflict

 

X

X

X

X

         

X

X

Sea Wave

       

X

X

       

X

X

Coastal Erosion

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Hazard Frequency

Hazard

Frequency

Vulnerable divisions

Floods

Every year

Mannar, Manthai west, Madhu, Nanattan and Musali divisions

Cyclone/High wind

Every year

Mannar, Manthai west, Madhu, Nanattan and Musali divisions

Drought

Every year

Mannar, Manthai west, Madhu, Nanattan and Musali divisions

Epidemic

Every year

Mannar, Manthai west, Madhu, Nanattan and Musali divisions

Sea surge / Storm surge

Every year

Mannar, Manthai west, Nanattan and Musali divisions

Table: Seasonality of Epidemics (specify)- as applicable

Infectious diseases reported by months in MOH area-2009

S.No

Disease

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1

Typhoid

16

13

1

1

1

6

9

2

6

6

2

3

66

2

Dysentry

1

-

-

3

16

2

6

6

7

9

6

18

74

3

Clinical Malaria

3

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

45

51

4

Viral Hepatitis

2

1

4

7

12

3

9

3

4

8

-

1

54

5

Tuberculosis

4

1

3

1

3

4

2

3

1

1

3

2

28

6

Dengue

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

8

11

7

Meningitis

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

8

Chickenpox

9

17

53

13

21

19

15

24

4

2

1

1

179

9

Leptospirosis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

10

Rabies

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

Total

37

35

61

25

53

34

41

40

22

26

12

78

464

Source: RDHS Office, Mannar

Infectious diseases reported by months in MOH area-2010

S.No

Disease

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1

Typhoid

4

6

1

2

1

4

1

2

3

1

1

3

29

2

Dysentry

8

4

1

1

2

2

8

1

8

2

3

-

40

3

Clinical Malaria

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

4

4

Viral Hepatitis

2

3

3

0

-

-

2

1

1

1

-

1

14

5

Tuberculosis

0

2

1

4

1

-

2

-

2

4

1

6

23

6

Dengue

16

21

12

16

1

29

78

159

53

18

11

7

421

7

Meningitis

1

0

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

8

Chickenpox

1

-

1

1

4

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

8

9

Leptospirosis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

9

10

Rabies

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

Total

33

36

20

24

9

35

92

163

67

27

18

27

551

Source: RDHS Office, Mannar

 

Infectious diseases reported by months in RDHS Mannar-2011

S.No

Disease

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1

Food poisioning

-

-

-

-

74

3

-

-

4

-

-

-

81

2

Dengue fever

5

3

3

1

2

2

1

1

-

15

8

28

69

3

Tuberculosis

7

3

-

1

3

3

2

5

1

4

1

6

36

4

Dysentry

-

1

-

1

1

1

3

3

4

2

4

6

26

5

Typhas fever

5

8

1

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

-

4

21

6

Chicken pox

-

-

-

-

4

2

-

-

4

1

3

1

15

7

Malaria

7

3

3

-

1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

15

8

Enteric fever

1

1

-

-

-

2

4

-

1

-

4

-

13

9

Mumps

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

4

1

1

-

7

10

Meningitis

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

3

Total

25

19

7

3

86

14

11

11

18

24

22

46

286

Source: RDHS Office, Mannar

Infectious diseases reported by months in RDHS Mannar -2012

S.No

Disease

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1

Food poisioning

8

0

5

0

0

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

16

2

Dengue fever

33

6

6

5

7

5

2

1

2

2

10

18

97

3

Tuberculosis

2

5

9

4

4

4

2

4

8

8

3

10

63

4

Dysentry

3

0

3

3

1

1

1

0

3

4

8

5

32

5

Typhas fever

9

7

11

3

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

2

35

6

Chicken pox

2

0

2

0

0

1

0

1

3

0

0

0

9

7

Malaria

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

8

Enteric fever

1

3

0

3

0

0

0

2

7

24

9

8

57

9

Mumps

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

10

Meningitis

0

0

2

0

1

0

0

0

2

2

0

1

8

Total

58

21

38

18

14

12

5

11

26

42

30

44

319

Source: RDHS Office, Mannar

 

Hazards that the district is prone to, and the assessment of the potential risk

Disaster

Types of disaster

Priority in the current  year

Potential Risks Involved

Remarks

Disease Outbreaks (Dengue, Cholera and diarrhea)

Natural in nature/ results of human action

High

Death

Mannar district is prone to dengue, cholera and diarrhea outbreak especially after the rainy season. Due to the improper sewage and drainage system and lack of garbage disposal facilities, Mannar Town DS division (Mannar Island) faces issues. As Mannar town is lower than the sea level, constructing a proper drainage system is a big challenge. 

Sickness

Loss of income

Drought / Prolonged dry spell

Natural in nature

Medium

Crop destruction

Many parts of the district have experienced dry spells, leading to destruction of crops and food insecurity among the population.

Hunger

Loss of Human Lives

Loss of animals

Floods / Water logging

Natural in nature

High

Death

Several parts in Mannar districts are prone to floods and water logging due to continuous rain. However, major floods situations are caused by overflowing water from tanks in other districts especially during Oct – Feb.

Disease outbreak

Impeded movements

Destruction of properties

Tsunami

Natural in nature

Low

Death

Tsunami will create much greater destruction to the district as almost every DS division except Madhu has a long costal belt. Fishing is the main income generation activity in the coastal areas. Tsunami can cause mass destruction to the life and livelihood and infrastructure to the population. Especially, Mannar Island is very vulnerable for Tsunami. 

Loss of properties

Loss of income

Disease outbreak

Probability of occurrence of the top 4 hazards in Mannar

Hazards

Probability score

Disease Outbreaks (Dengue, Cholera and diarrhea)

3

Floods/Water Logging

3

Drought / Prolonged dry spell

2

Tsunami

1

Relative degrees of potential impact

Hazards

Size of population

Potential lethality

Potential destruction of critical infrastructure

Disease Outbreak

2

2

0

Drought /Prolonged dry spell

2

2

0

Floods/Water logging

3

1

2

Tsunami

3

3

3

3- High

2- Medium

1- Low

0- not applicable

1.3.4 Other emergencies and disastrous situations that can happen

(Other emergencies and disastrous situations which have not occurred in the division before, but could happen in the future due to the following reasons could also be responded to, using this plan)

Disaster Category

Possible Crisis or Emergency Situation

Disasters related to natural causes, but induced by human activities

Blockage of surface water drainage

Floods due to filling of flood retention low land

Reservoir and dam related floods

Destruction of flood retention bunds an dikes in rivers

Due to technological causes

Collapse of old building or other permanent structure

Major fire, Gas/ petroleum/ chemical leak or pipe burst

Major rail or road accidents

Explosion of a fuel browser

Contamination of drinking water sources

Plane crash

Collapse of bridges and elevated water tanks